Monday, April 15, 2013

Alice strikes back against Bob's 'reverse dictionary'

This is part 3 of a series of blog posts about one way functions and their use in securing passwords. If you haven't read the first two parts start here.

Now Alice is angry. She realizes that Bob has defeated her clever one way function with his reverse dictionary and that now that Bob's created it he can use it over and again. All his initial effort will be amortized day after day as he steals crossword answers from Alice.

And so Alice strikes back.

The following day she calls Bob and says that she's making a small change to her one way function. It'll still involve looking up five words in the dictionary and following the definitions, but the order will change. In fact, she'll get to pick the order.

In the original scheme the first word of the first definition was used, the second word of the second and so on. Alice proposes to verify that she knows the answer to 4D (TANGLE) by giving Bob the final word (just as before) but also five numbers indicating which word to pick from each definition. In the original scheme the order was 1,2,3,4,5 (indicating the first word from the first definition, the second word from the second definition and so on).

But today she tells Bob that the answer is HUMAN and the order is 2,2,4,5,1. So Bob has to start from TANGLE (if he knows it!) follow the second word of the first definition, the second word of the second definition, the fourth word of the third, the fifth word of the fourth and take the first word of the fifth definition (which should be HUMAN).

This renders Bob's reverse dictionary useless. It's only good for the original order; 1,2,3,4,5. Now Alice is free to pick any five numbers from 1 to 5 before working out her one way function. Bob can still easily verify that Alice knows TANGLE, as long as she gives him the order, because he too can follow the definitions from TANGLE to HUMAN. But, of course, he has to have solved TANGLE by himself!

And five numbers in the range 1 to 5 gives Alice 5 * 5 * 5 * 5 * 5 = 3,125 possible orders in which to follow definitions. That would force Bob to create 3,125 reverse dictionaries for each of the possible combinations that Alice could use. He doesn't have the room in his house for that.

And Alice is free to pick a new sequence for every word Bob wants to verify. So Bob has to either work backwards through the one way function (which is really hard/almost impossible) or go through the entire dictionary trying to find which word Alice started with.

Because Alice can pick a different order each time she wants to disguise a word she can even make the same word turn into completely different words. With the order 2,2,4,5,1 TANGLE became HUMAN, but with 1,4,5,3,2 TANGLE becomes AUTOMATIC. So, Bob won't even be able to learn from past words.

In the real, mathematical world of one way functions and passwords the extra piece of information that Alice has chosen (the numbers) is called salt. It is typically chosen randomly and either added to the password to be stored or used as a parameter to the encryption used to store the password. It need not be numbers; in fact it's often just random characters.

The password database will contain both the salt and the result of the one way function applied to the salt and password combined. It's still possible to check a password when the user types it in (the web site computes the one way function of the salt and typed in password combination and compares it with what's stored in the database).

But if the password database is stolen an attacker is frustrated because each password will have a different salt and cracking passwords will be greatly slowed down. Pre-calculated 'reverse dictionaries' or rainbow tables will be useless and each password will have to be cracked individually (without salt if two or more people have the same password it only has to be cracked once). This means an attacker has to run through all possible passwords for each entry in the database as the salt is different for each one.

The salt value that goes along with each password is not a secret. All it needs to be is long and different for each password stored in the database. Just as Alice tells Bob the salt 'order', a well designed password system will not relying on the secrecy of the salt: the strength of the system relies on the strength of the one way function (i.e. how hard it is to calculate 'backwards').

Fortunately, or unfortunately, this isn't the end of the story. Even with salt it's possible to crack passwords.

PART 4: Bob's wife Carla lends a speedy mind

PS There's actually a way round the need to create 3,125 dictionaries which is entirely separate from what Carla's going to do! Either see if you can figure this out yourself or read this comment.

This entire series of blog posts is available for purchase as an illustrated PDF or eBook for $1.99.

If you enjoyed this blog post, you might enjoy my travel book for people interested in science and technology: The Geek Atlas. Signed copies of The Geek Atlas are available.

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