This is part 4 of a series of blog posts about one-way functions and their use in securing passwords. If you have not read the other parts start here.

Bob doesn't usually let his wife Carla help him with crosswords. That's because, due to some unusual quirk of brain topology, Carla is a savant and she's memorized the entire Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. So, she's able to recall the definition of any word almost instantly. But, like many people with similar abilities, her talent is limited, she can't perform the opposite: given a definition she's just as slow as her husband at finding the corresponding word.

Carla's ability means that she can calculate Alice's one-way function from crossword solution through five definitions very quickly. She's about 100 times faster than Bob because she has no need to find words in the physical book. But she's no faster at performing the reverse.

Alice calls and Bob challenges her for the solution to 25A. Alice knows that it's WITTINESS but Bob does not. As before Alice picks some salt, she chooses 4,3,4,5,1 and works out the word given by her one-way function (it's SINGLE, WITTINESS -> QUICK -> DOING -> PARTICULAR -> INDIVIDUAL -> SINGLE). Alice thinks her salt value means that Bob will have a hard time figuring out that the answer to 25A is WITTINESS.

But she's forgotten about Carla. Carla sits quietly and runs through the entire dictionary in her head. Starting from each word she performs Alice's one-way function using the salt 4,3,4,5,1 until (sometime after lunch) getting the answer WITTINESS. She hasn't worked backwards, she's simply worked through every word in the dictionary performing Alice's one-way function (with salt) on each word in turn.

Aside: this is the current state of the art in password cracking. Carla is replaced by a computer (or more than one computer) capable of calculating the one-way function of a long list of passwords (usually starting with the poor passwords, like 123456, that people commonly pick and then making up passwords from mixtures of letters, numbers and symbols). Even with salt it's possible to crack passwords because computers are fast, and many real, mathematical one-way functions can be computed very quickly.

In fact, many real, mathematical one-way functions were

While Alice is on the phone she overhears Carla whispering in the background. It doesn't take her long to realize that Bob has asked for Carla's assistance and that, because her one-way function is quite quick to work out, Carla will be able to run through the dictionary and determine crossword clues from the supposedly secure words Alice gives to Bob.

Luckily, Alice has a simple solution to this. She just needs to extend the time it takes Carla to work through each individual word in the dictionary. She does that by adding a wrinkle to her one-way function: she tells Bob that the one-way function must be performed multiple times. Given that Carla took half a day to crack a single word, she tells Bob that for any word she gives (with its corresponding salt) he must perform her one-way function 10 times.

So, for WITTINESS she would give Bob the salt 4,3,4,5,1 and the end word (which is now CHEMICAL). Bob must first follow WITTINESS to SINGLE, and then start again with the same salt and work forward from SINGLE to INCLUDING, and then start again with the same salt and work forward from INCLUDING to HAVING, and so on ten times ending up at CHEMICAL.

This forces Carla to do ten times as much work; so it will take her days to crack a single word. But it only slows Bob down a little. If he actually knows the answer is WITTINESS and just wants to verify that Alice has solved the same clue, he just has to perform Alice's one-way function 10 times starting from WITTINESS (Carla's forced to do the same thing for the entire dictionary).

And that is the current state of the art in password protection. A password is entered by a user, some random salt is chosen and then a one-way function of the password and salt combination is computed many times (often 10,000 or 100,000 times since computers are fast). Or a specially designed one-way function with a 'cost': a number that tells it how hard to work in computing its result (the cost can be increased as computers get faster) is used.

This causes a small delay when you enter your password at a web site or on your smartphone since a one-way function must be computed over and over again. But that small delay adds up to a huge delay for anyone who wants to crack passwords because for every password they try they incur the small delay of repeated calculations.

And that's where this series ends. I hope it's been enjoyable and informative.

PS From time to time you hear of companies that have had their password database stolen. You might be very surprised to learn that many do not use the state of the art in password storage. Be on the look out when a password database is reported to stolen to see if the press reports that the passwords were 'salted' and 'hashed' (the term typically used for the one-way function). And even when they are salted and hashed it's worth asking (or wondering) whether they used a scheme that could beat Carla's computer equivalent by hashing multiple times. (A comment on Hacker News points out that I should really be educating people to ask if a key derivation function was used, instead of salting and hashing, since those have been designed for this purpose).

PPS Don't pick a poor password (such as secret, 123456 or iloveyou). The first thing a competent password cracker will try is a list of common passwords. Even with the best salted and repeatedly hashed password systems a password like 123456 is going to get broken.

This entire series of blog posts is available for purchase as an illustrated PDF or eBook for $1.99.

Bob doesn't usually let his wife Carla help him with crosswords. That's because, due to some unusual quirk of brain topology, Carla is a savant and she's memorized the entire Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. So, she's able to recall the definition of any word almost instantly. But, like many people with similar abilities, her talent is limited, she can't perform the opposite: given a definition she's just as slow as her husband at finding the corresponding word.

Carla's ability means that she can calculate Alice's one-way function from crossword solution through five definitions very quickly. She's about 100 times faster than Bob because she has no need to find words in the physical book. But she's no faster at performing the reverse.

Alice calls and Bob challenges her for the solution to 25A. Alice knows that it's WITTINESS but Bob does not. As before Alice picks some salt, she chooses 4,3,4,5,1 and works out the word given by her one-way function (it's SINGLE, WITTINESS -> QUICK -> DOING -> PARTICULAR -> INDIVIDUAL -> SINGLE). Alice thinks her salt value means that Bob will have a hard time figuring out that the answer to 25A is WITTINESS.

But she's forgotten about Carla. Carla sits quietly and runs through the entire dictionary in her head. Starting from each word she performs Alice's one-way function using the salt 4,3,4,5,1 until (sometime after lunch) getting the answer WITTINESS. She hasn't worked backwards, she's simply worked through every word in the dictionary performing Alice's one-way function (with salt) on each word in turn.

Aside: this is the current state of the art in password cracking. Carla is replaced by a computer (or more than one computer) capable of calculating the one-way function of a long list of passwords (usually starting with the poor passwords, like 123456, that people commonly pick and then making up passwords from mixtures of letters, numbers and symbols). Even with salt it's possible to crack passwords because computers are fast, and many real, mathematical one-way functions can be computed very quickly.

In fact, many real, mathematical one-way functions were

*designed*to be quick to compute (in one direction) and impossible to reverse. This speed of computation makes them a poor choice for password protection because a fast computer can run through millions of password and salt combinations to crack passwords. They were not actually designed for the task of protecting passwords: they are used because their one-way nature means that password databases never store actual passwords.While Alice is on the phone she overhears Carla whispering in the background. It doesn't take her long to realize that Bob has asked for Carla's assistance and that, because her one-way function is quite quick to work out, Carla will be able to run through the dictionary and determine crossword clues from the supposedly secure words Alice gives to Bob.

Luckily, Alice has a simple solution to this. She just needs to extend the time it takes Carla to work through each individual word in the dictionary. She does that by adding a wrinkle to her one-way function: she tells Bob that the one-way function must be performed multiple times. Given that Carla took half a day to crack a single word, she tells Bob that for any word she gives (with its corresponding salt) he must perform her one-way function 10 times.

So, for WITTINESS she would give Bob the salt 4,3,4,5,1 and the end word (which is now CHEMICAL). Bob must first follow WITTINESS to SINGLE, and then start again with the same salt and work forward from SINGLE to INCLUDING, and then start again with the same salt and work forward from INCLUDING to HAVING, and so on ten times ending up at CHEMICAL.

This forces Carla to do ten times as much work; so it will take her days to crack a single word. But it only slows Bob down a little. If he actually knows the answer is WITTINESS and just wants to verify that Alice has solved the same clue, he just has to perform Alice's one-way function 10 times starting from WITTINESS (Carla's forced to do the same thing for the entire dictionary).

And that is the current state of the art in password protection. A password is entered by a user, some random salt is chosen and then a one-way function of the password and salt combination is computed many times (often 10,000 or 100,000 times since computers are fast). Or a specially designed one-way function with a 'cost': a number that tells it how hard to work in computing its result (the cost can be increased as computers get faster) is used.

This causes a small delay when you enter your password at a web site or on your smartphone since a one-way function must be computed over and over again. But that small delay adds up to a huge delay for anyone who wants to crack passwords because for every password they try they incur the small delay of repeated calculations.

And that's where this series ends. I hope it's been enjoyable and informative.

PS From time to time you hear of companies that have had their password database stolen. You might be very surprised to learn that many do not use the state of the art in password storage. Be on the look out when a password database is reported to stolen to see if the press reports that the passwords were 'salted' and 'hashed' (the term typically used for the one-way function). And even when they are salted and hashed it's worth asking (or wondering) whether they used a scheme that could beat Carla's computer equivalent by hashing multiple times. (A comment on Hacker News points out that I should really be educating people to ask if a key derivation function was used, instead of salting and hashing, since those have been designed for this purpose).

PPS Don't pick a poor password (such as secret, 123456 or iloveyou). The first thing a competent password cracker will try is a list of common passwords. Even with the best salted and repeatedly hashed password systems a password like 123456 is going to get broken.

This entire series of blog posts is available for purchase as an illustrated PDF or eBook for $1.99.

## Comments

Why do you keep switching between past and present tense? It makes your writing difficult to comprehend.

I bought the Geek Atlas a while ago, I've slowly been ticking things off the list. I did Bletchley the other week, brilliant place!

I looked for a group on Google+ to share progress and images with but noticed there's nothing of the sort. I went and created a community (https://plus.google.com/communities/112607500383814371727)

But thought I'd better try check with you first before doing anything with it or hand it over to you if you'd rather have control of it?

kind regards

So the database doesn't contain passwords, instead it contains a string for each password that can be reached by following a one way function?

But if the one way function is salted then this would lead to a different string for each salt? (which in your example is about 3000 strings)

Does this mean that a password database would contain 3000 different strings for each password each referring to a different salt?

Thanks!